The incomplete leader

Tara Swart

Neuroscientist and Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan School of Management

Feeling like a fraud

In research done by Deborah Ancona from MIT on “In Praise of the Incomplete Leader”, she identified four ways of leadings: sense making, relating, visioning and inventing. In conclusion of the surveys done with thousands of leaders, none of the leaders were equally good at all four of them. In another survey, 100 CEOs were asked to share a secret which they have never told anyone. A popular answer from various industries was “I often feel like I will be found out for being a fraud”.


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